A network interface controller is pc hardware that connects the computer to the network media and has the flexibility to process low-degree network data. For instance, the NIC may have a connector for accepting a cable, or an aerial for wireless transmission and reception, and the associated circuitry. The last two instances have a big spherical-trip delay time, which supplies gradual two-method communication but doesn’t forestall sending large quantities of information . Communications satellites– Satellites also communicate through microwave. The satellites are stationed in house, usually in geosynchronous orbit 35,four hundred km above the equator. These Earth-orbiting systems are capable of receiving and relaying voice, knowledge, and TV indicators. It carries pulses of light that symbolize data through lasers and optical amplifiers.

Some advantages of optical fibers over steel wires are very low transmission loss and immunity to electrical interference. Using dense wave division multiplexing, optical fibers can concurrently carry …

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